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Full text of "Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet"

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Bulgarian 

Elmar Ternes* and Tatjana Vladimirova-buhtz** 



*Institutftir Phonetik, Allgemeine 

Bogenallee 
**Aumattenweg 2, D- 



Sprac hwissenschaft und Indogermanistik, Universitdt Hamburg 
*"** 11 D-20144 Hamburg, Germany 



U 



791 1 7 Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany 

The style of speech illustrated is Star dard Bulgarian as used by people with an academic 
background. Historically, the Standard contains elements of western and eastern Bulgarian, 
but in its present form, it cannot be localized in any particular region. 

The speech on the recording is that of a 33-year-old speaker holding a post at the 
University of Sofia. Bulgarian examples are given in a transliteration from Cyrillic script. 

Consonants 





Bilabial 


Labi( 
dent; 


>- 
1 


Alveolar 


Post- 
alveolar 


Palatal 


Velar 


Plosive 


P b 






t d 




k g 


Nasal 


m 






n 






Fricative 




f 


/ 


s z 


J 3 




X 


Affricate 








ts dz 


tf d 3 






Trill 








r 






Approximant 










J 




Lateral 
Approximant 








1 























P 


pija 


T drink' 


t 


b 


bija 


'I beat' 


d 
ts 
dz 


m 


most 


'bridge' 


n 


f 


far 


'lighthouse' 


s 


V 


var 


'limestone' 


z 


r 


roza 


'rose' 


1 



The phonemic analysis underlying the 
palatalized consonants. An alternat 
consonants: /pi, b j , t j , dJ, kJ, gj, tsJ, 



&/), 



torn 
dom 
tsar 
dzift 



zarna 



'volume' 


k 


kol 


'pole' 


'home' 


g 


gol 


'naked' 


'tsar' 


tj 


tsar 


'charm' 


'tar' 


d 3 


dzob 


'pocket' 


'nose' 


X 


hatha 


'ring' 


'roe' 


; 


sal 


'scarf 


'corn' (pi) 


3 


zed 


'pity' 


'tulip' 


J 


jak 


'strong' 



present transcription does not assume the existence of 
ve analysis postulates the following palatalized 

mi, nJ, rJ, fi, v*, si, zi, xi, V/. 



56 Handbook of the IP A 

The nature of palatalization in Bulgarian is different from that in Russian. Its occurrence 
is very restricted. Before front vowels and [j], palatalization does not go beyond the degree 
that is conditioned by the inevitable play of coarticulation. Before back vowels palatalization 
may unambiguously be interpreted as C plus [j]. In syllable and word final position it does 
not occur. 



Vowels 






i 


kit 


* whale' 


e 


pet 


'five' 


a 


mlad 


'young' 





rod 


'kin' 


u 


lud 


'crazy' 


Y 


pat 


'path' 


[o] (unstressed only) 




[ko'ga] 


koga 


'when' 


[e] (unstressed 


only) 




['dume] 


duma 


'word' 




[o] is a neutralization of /u/ and hi, [b] is a neutralization of /a/ and /y/, both in unstressed 
syllables. 



Stress 








Stress is distinctive: 


['pare] 


para 


'steam 




[psra] 


para 


'coin' 



Conventions 

/p, t, k/ aire unaspirated. /b, d, g/ are fully voiced, /t, d, ts, dz, n, r, s, z, 1/ are prealveolar. 
/r/ is a trill, Ixl has only slight friction. HI is velarized [i] before [a, 0, u, y, o, b] as well as 
in syllable and word final position. 

[o, b] may be somewhat more closed than shown in the figure in unstressed syllables 
after stress. 



Transcription of recorded passage 

'severnijet 'vjater i 'shrntseto se pre'pirexB 'koj e 'posilen, ko'gato edin 
'prtnik, zB'vit f 'topte 'drexe, 'mine pokrej 'tjax. te re'Jlxe tfe 'tozi, 'kojto 
'prrf nB'kare 'pvtnike dB si sve'li 'drexete, Jte se 'stfite 'posilen od 'drugiJB. 
to'gavB 'severniJBt 'vjater ze'potfne dB 'duxe s 'fsitJkB 'site, no 'kolkoto 
'posilno 'vjateret 'duxBfe, 'tolkove 'popletno 'prtnikBt o'vivefe 'drexBte 
okolo 'sebe si. 'naj 'posle 'severnij^t 'vjater pre'kvsne o'silijete si. to'gave 
'slvntseto zB'potfn^ cte 'gree 'silno, i 'pvtnikEt ved'nage sve'li 'drexfcte si. i 
te'ka, 'severniJBt 'vjater 'beje pri'nuden de pri'znae, tfe 'shrntseto e 'posilno 
ot 'nego. 



Illustrations of the IP A 57 

Orthographic Version 

CeBepHHHT BHTtp h cjn>HijeTo ce npennpaxa, kom e no-cmieH, xoraTO 
eflHH jtbthhk, saBMT b Ton ji a flpexa, MMHa noxpaH Tax. Te peniHxa, 
ne tosh, komto nptB Haxapa m>THHKa fla cm cBajin flpexaTa, me ce 
cHHTa no-cH,jieH ot flpyrHH. ToraBa ceBepHMHT b strop 3anoHHa fla 
^yxa c BCMMxa cMJia, ho kojikoto jto-cmjiho BsiroptT qyxanie, 
TOjiKOBa no-njitTHo m>THH*:T>T yBMBaine apexaTa okojio ce6e cm. 
HaH-nocjie ceBepHHHT Barop npeictCHa ycMJiMHTa cm. ToraBa 
cji-LHi^eTO 3anoHHa fla rpea cmjiho, m m>THMKi>T BeflHara cBajiM 
ApexaTa cm. H Taica, ceBepHHHT Barop 6enie npMHyfleH fla npHSHae, ne 
ontHijeTO e no-cMJiHo ot Heipo. 



Acknowledgement 

We are grateful to Mohammad- Reza Majidi for help with the computer program used in preparing the 
original manuscript of this paper. 



Handbook of the International Phonetic Association : 
A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet 
International Phonetic Association, July 1999.